What Can Cause Blood in Urine Without Infection

What Can Cause Blood in Urine Without Infection?

Our body is a unique yet complex mechanism complete in itself. While it knows how to process the required and essential nutrients out of the food and beverages we consume, our body also completes the operations by systematically and regularly excreting out the waste products in the form of stool (solid by-product excreted from the body) and urine (liquid by-product excreted from the body). These by-products of metabolism thus hold the key indicators of any issue or problem that the body might face.

Urine mostly is an aqueous solution excreted from the body which is composed of mainly water (more than 95%). Some other constituents of urine include urea, chloride, sodium, potassium, creatinine and other dissolved ions, and inorganic and organic compounds. At times, urine also contains some amount of blood which might indicate some problem. Let us understand what can cause blood in urine without infection?

What Can Cause Blood in Urine without Infection?

While mostly, detection of blood in urine, a condition known as Hematuria, usually is a sign of some serious medical conditions, it is important to understand the causes which can lead to a situation where blood is found in urine. Usually, blood in urine indicates infection in the kidney, bladder, or the urinary tract. However, at times blood in urine can also be found even without any infection. Some of the primary causes where blood can be detected in urine without infection include

  • Suffering from Kidney or Bladder Stones

    People suffering from stones either in their bladder or their kidney/s (which is certainly not an infection) can experience moderate or microscopic blood in their urine since such stones can scrape the organs and the resultant blood might pass through the urine. Interestingly stones are the result of concentrated minerals from concentrated urine which crystallizes on the walls of the kidneys or bladder and with time, the crystals convert into small and hard stones.

  • Kidney Disease

    Detection of microscopic blood in urine without infection is a common symptom of glomerulonephritis which is an inflammation of the kidneys’ filtering system.

  • Kidney Injury

    Any kind of kidney injury resulting from a hard blow or any other injury to the kidneys due to an accident or contact sports may lead to cause visible blood discharge in the urine.

  • Enlarged Prostrate

    The prostate gland (situated just below the bladder and surrounding the top part of the urethra) often enlarges as men approach their middle age. This enlarged prostate gland compresses the urethra which in turn partially blocks urine flow resulting invisible or microscopic blood in the urine.

  • Cancer

    Moderate or visible urinary bleeding is also a probable sign of advanced kidney, bladder, or prostate cancer.

  • Inherited Diseases

    Certain hereditary defects and diseases, such as sickle cell anaemia (hereditary defect of haemoglobin in red blood cells) or Alport syndrome (which affects the filtering membranes in the glomeruli of the kidneys), can result in moderate or microscopic blood in urine.

  • Result of Medications

    Some prescribed medications especially, anti-cancer drug cyclophosphamide and penicillin, result in the side effect of causing urinary bleeding. Moderate or microscopic urinary blood can also be found in urine as a result of taking anticoagulants, such as aspirin, and blood thinners, such as heparin.

  • The Result of Strenuous Exercises

    Sometimes, microscopic blood in urine can also be a result of strenuous exercises, though it is rare for such strenuous exercise to lead to moderate to heavy bleeding (which might be serious in case the cause is unknown). This is mostly linked to trauma caused by such exercises to the bladder or because of prolonged dehydration or because of a breakdown of red blood cells occurring due to sustained aerobic exercise.

At times some pregnant women to complain of blood in urine though no Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is detected. Some doctors believe that microscopic blood in urine at times is not serious, though it is advisable to contact the doctor regarding such issue at the earliest. This might be an indication of stones in the kidney or some other ailment of the body.

In order to find out the appropriate reason for blood in urine, the doctor would prescribe a urine test where the urine sample would be used to test for signs of an infection, kidney disease or other problems. After studying the results of the urine test, the doctor would then decide the course of treatments. The doctor might further advise undergoing certain other tests of the urine in case the results are non-conclusive at the first instance.

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How to Treat Blood in Urine without Infection?

Blood in urine or Hematuria is not something which should be neglected. However, in order to treat the same, the exact cause of such blood in urine should be known to the medical practitioner. Thus, an appointment with the doctor at the earliest is the most important step that one should undertake in case he/she finds blood in urine.

The doctor would advise a thorough urine test in order to find out what can cause blood in urine without infection and then start the appropriate treatment schedule. For example, in case of bleeding due to strenuous exercises, the doctor might need to advise limiting the exercises or not practising heavy exercises till the time the injury heals.

Medically Reviewed By
Dr. Kaushal M. Bhavsar (MBBS, MD)Assistant Professor in Pulmonary Medicine, GMERS Medical College, Ahmedabad