If your doctor suspects that you are suffering from a chronic condition, such as diabetes, kidney, or liver disease, he may order you to take a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) blood test. A CMP test is a blood test that is also required as a part of a physical exam or as a means to monitor various conditions, such as mentioned above.
What Is The CMP Blood Test?
A CMP blood test helps in evaluating the protein and sugar levels in your blood. It can tell how well your liver and kidneys are functioning. It also aids in determining your body’s fluid balance and electrolyte levels.
Your body uses sugar for you to have energy. On the other hand, electrolytes are responsible for balancing your body’s fluids. They can help in maintaining your brain function, muscle contraction, and heart rhythm.
The liver aids in digestion and yields vitamins and other substances needed by your body. It also manages the amounts of protein, fat, and glucose in your body. The kidneys can help balance the number of minerals, water, and salts in your blood. They also get rid of unwanted substances from your body.
What Is Included In A CMP Blood Test?
The CMP blood test helps in evaluating the following
1. Liver Including The Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), And Bilirubin
If you are suffering from a certain liver condition, you will most likely have increased amounts of ALP in your blood. The same is true with ALT. It is an enzyme found in your liver cells. AST is a liver enzyme that can also aid in diagnosing liver disease.
2. Kidney Including The BUN And Creatinine
BUN usually increases if your kidney function decreases. It is a byproduct of foods proteins after they have been broken down. Creatinine can help determine how well the kidneys are working.
3. Electrolytes, Including Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, And Carbon Dioxide.
These electrolytes can determine whether or not you are suffering from kidney disease.
4. Proteins, Including Albumin And Total Protein
Protein can help in diagnosing whether or not you have liver disease.
This is measured to monitor patients with diabetes. This can also help diagnose prediabetes, type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes, hypoglycemia, and hyperglycemia.
The amount of calcium in your body can determine if your kidneys are producing sufficient amount of calcium.
Is Fasting Required For CMP Blood Test?
A CMP blood test does not necessarily need special preparation. But in some cases, you may be required to fast, such as if you will undergo a glucose test. Depending upon the reason for the CMP test, you should fast from 10 to 12 hours prior to the blood extraction. This test may also be done on a random basis.
The Procedure, Preparation, Normal Range And Results Interpretation
First, the health professional will clean the skin. He will then put a tourniquet above the area where the blood will be extracted. The needle will then be inserted into the vein. Blood will be taken into a syringe or vial.
As mentioned above, special preparation is not necessary before the blood extraction. But there are instances when you will be required to fast prior to the said test, which means that you are not allowed to eat any food, you can only drink water within the restrictive period.
Here is the normal range of the following
|Liver Test||Normal Range|
|ALP||44 to 147 IU/L|
|ALT||7 to 40 IU/L|
|AST||10 to 34 IU/L|
|Bilirubin||0.3 to 1.9 mg/dL|
|Kidney Test||Normal Range|
|BUN||6 to 20 mg/dL|
|Creatinin||0.6 to 1.3 mg/dL|
|Sodium||136 to 145 meq/L|
|Potassium||3.5 to 5.1 mrq/L|
|Chloride||96 to 106 meq/L|
|CO2||23 to 29 meq/L|
|Albumin||3.4 to 5.4 g/dL|
|Total Protein||6.0 to 8.3 g/dL|
|Glucose||70 to 99 mg/dL|
|Calcium||8.6 to 10.2 mg/dL|
If the result of your CMP blood test is within the reference range, as shown in the tables above, then it is normal. But if it is high or below the said range, it is considered abnormal. Depending on the test, it may be an indication of an underlying condition.
A CMP blood test may be a part of your regular checkup, but it may be required if you are suspected of a certain condition affecting your blood sugar, protein, electrolytes, kidney, or liver. This test helps determine your glucose and electrolyte levels, amount of protein in your blood, and how your liver and kidneys are working.
Doctor, author and fitness enthusiast, Ahmed Zayed, MD, is a surgery resident with a passion for helping people live a happy healthy life. He is the author of numerous health-related books and contributor to several medicine, health and wellbeing websites.