SGPT Blood Test – Purpose, Prep, Procedure, Results Explanation

SGPT Blood Test – Purpose, Prep, Procedure, Results Explanation

Liver is considered as the major metabolic organ in the body, which performs various functions like metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and fat, regulation of coagulation and detoxification of toxic substances. With this it is also enriched with reticuloendothelial functions. Whenever the function of liver is alter doctor advice for the liver function test which includes several biochemical markers also. SGPT is one of the important biochemical marker of the liver.

What is SGPT?

SGPT or Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase is an enzyme which is located in the cytoplasm of the liver cells (hepatocycte). It means that it is located in liver. Whenever there is any damage or disturbed function of liver, this enzyme in the blood is raised. Slight lower SGPT level is good as it indicate good function of liver. While in pregnancy also SGPT level remain normal until there is any abnormal liver function or complications with pregnancy.

It is one of the important test as this test shows the intensity of the liver damage and hence considered more specific. This SGPT is also known as ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase).

SGPT Blood Test Purpose:

SGPT blood test is done when the patient comes with complains of pain in abdomen especially in right region of the abdomen with associated symptoms like nausea, vomiting, disturbed digestion, yellow skin, swelling of the abdomen, loss of appetite. Than doctor advised for liver function test, if SGPT level is raised from its normal range it indicate that liver is damaged or inflammation of liver is present. If SGPT level is slight lower than normal than patient has not to worry as it will not causes any problem.

SGPT Blood Test Preparation

There is no as such special preparation needed for the patient to perform this test. If the patient is taking any medication for any other problem than doctor advised not to take medicine before this test as that medicine can alter the range in the result. The patient is allowed to do his/her day to day activity.

For the children, it is advised for parents or guardian who comes along with them, to prepare their child that there is only a kind pinprick sensation for just 5 to 10 seconds only, so that they may not get panic and remain standstill for the test and cooperate with the technician because some children’s are afraid of the needles. Otherwise, this procedure of withdrawal of blood may be painful and can even injure to the vein and also to the muscles.

SGPT Blood Test Procedure

For performing this test, one to give his/her blood sample.

For Adult

  1. The forearm area from which the blood has to be collected is first clean with antiseptic
  2. Than needle is inserted to the vein of the forearm which will be seen more prominent. This is done by putting an elastic band over the arm which makes the veins swollen and prominent.
  3. Then blood is taken out in the tube attached to the needle.

For Infants

  • The lab technician has to take the blood by puncturing through the small needle on the heel. Before
    which it must be clean with an antiseptic to avoid any infection.

After this procedure of taking blood, the elastic band is removed from the hand in adult and from the leg in
the infant. Cotton or a bandage is then placed where the needle is punctured so the blood coming out stop. Within a second blood coming out stop.

This collected blood is then send to laboratories for investigation. This investigation does not take much time, so one can get a result within an hour.

There may be variations in the ranges if the test is performed in different laboratories through different methods. So it is advised to go to the best laboratory in your city so that doctor can easily believe on the report.

SGPT Levels

Normal Level

  • 7 to 56 units per liter of serum for both sexes.
  • While in pregnancy SGPT level remain the same between 7 to 56 units per liter of serum.

High Level

  • When it crosses the normal level i.e., above 57. When it is more than 70 one should go for proper treatment and should take it seriously. While a slightly high level can be treated with the maintenance of diet and medications.

Low Level

  • When SGPT is below the normal level than one should not worry about it. It indicates that the liver is functioning normally. This range may vary in different laboratories.

SGPT Test Result and Explanation

High Levels of SGPT are Found in Liver Diseases Like

  1. Acute viral hepatitis (inflammation of liver)
  2. Cirrhosis of liver
  3. Ischemic liver injury (decreased blood supply to liver)
  4. Toxin- drug induced liver injury
  5. Alcoholic liver diseases
  6. Acute hepatocellular necrosis
  7. Acute heart failure
  8. Chronic hepatocellular necrosis
  9. Obstructive jaundice
  10. Infiltrative diseases (tumor, granulomata)

Low Level of SGPT is Found in

1. Alcohol-induced deficiency of pyridoxal phosphate (active form of vitamin B6).
In pregnancy SGPT level is increased (moderate to mild) the following condition:-

  • Pre-eclampsia
  • Hyperemesis gravidarum
  • Alcohol abuse
  • Medications
  • Fatty liver

Above are the conditions in which the SGPT level is increased and decreased.

For the doctor, it is very important to take the history of the patient which must include:-

  • Acute viral hepatitis
  • Alcohol intake
  • Intravenous drug abuse
  • Hepatotoxic drug intake
  • The family history of liver disease

Along with the history patient’s physical examination (include both generals as well as a local examination) is also very important for the diagnosis.

If in liver function test, SGPT level is raised than you should consult to your doctor for proper diagnosis and
treatment. But sometimes SGPT level in your test come more than normal range without any symptoms than you should go for test at other laboratories because many times variations are seen. While low level does not require any treatment.